(Osteosarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Ewing’s Sarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Primary Lymphoma of Bone; Giant Cell Tumor; Chordoma)
- Osteosarcoma—a cancerous tumor of the bone, usually of the arms, legs, or pelvis; the most common primary cancer
- Chondrosarcoma—cancer of the cartilage; the second most common primary cancer
- Ewing's sarcoma—tumors that usually develop in the cavity of the leg and arm bones
- Fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma—cancers that develop in soft tissues (eg, tendons, ligaments, fat, muscle) and move to the bones of the legs, arms, and jaw
- Giant cell tumor—a primary bone tumor that is malignant (cancerous) only about 10% of the time; most common in the arm or leg bones
- Chordoma—primary bone tumor that usually occurs in the skull or spine
- Paget's disease (a noncancerous bone condition)
- Exposure to radiation
- Family history of bone cancer
- Age: older than 20 years old
- Multiple exostoses (an inherited condition that results in bumps on bones)
- Age: younger than 30 years old
Fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma:
- Age: middle-aged and elderly
Giant cell tumor:
- Age: young and middle-aged
- Pain at the tumor location
- Swelling or a lump at the location of the tumor
- Deep bone pain severe enough to wake you up
- Unexplained weight loss
- Trouble breathing
- Fever or night sweats
- Bone fractures (rarely)
- Your doctor may need to check the level of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. This can be done with a blood test.
- Your doctor may need to look for evidence of bone tumors. This can be done with a bone scan.
- Your doctor may need to test a sample of your bone tissue. This can be done with a biopsy.
- Your doctor may need pictures of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
- External radiation therapy—radiation directed at the tumor from a source outside the body
- Internal radiation therapy—radioactive materials placed into the body near the cancer cells
|Radiation of Tumor|
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- Methotrexate with calcium
Myeloablative Therapy with Stem Cell Support
Special Treatment Considerations for Certain Cancer Types
- Osteosarcoma—Chemotherapy given before and after surgery will often cure osteosarcoma and can allow for limb-sparing surgery in people who might have otherwise required amputation.
- Ewing’s sarcoma—Since Ewing’s sarcoma is very responsive to chemotherapy, its treatment often involves several weeks of chemotherapy followed by surgical removal or radiation therapy, then several more months of chemotherapy.
- Fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma—These conditions are usually treated with surgery to remove the cancerous tumor and a one-inch margin of healthy tissue surrounding it.
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org/
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov/
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca/
Caring for Kids The Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/
Bone cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/bone. Accessed January 14, 2013.
Detailed guide: bone cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bonecancer/index. Accessed January 14, 2013.
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 01/14/2013 -