(TMD; Temporomandibular Joint Disorder; Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction; TMJ Syndrome; TMJ Osteoarthritis)
|The Temporomandibular Joint|
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- Excess tension in the jaw muscles
- Faulty alignment between the upper and lower teeth
- Disturbed movement of the jaw joint
- Displacement or abnormal position of the jaw joint or cartilage disc inside the jaw joint
- Arthritis or similar inflammatory process in the joint
- Excess or limited motion of the joint
- Injury of the jaw or face
- Pain in the temporomandibular joint, jaw, or face
- Pain may be worse with chewing, yawning, or opening the mouth
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds with movement of the jaw
- A sensation of the jaw catching or locking briefly, while attempting to open or close the mouth, or while chewing
- Difficulty opening the mouth completely
- A bite that feels off, uncomfortable, or as though it is frequently changing
- Swelling in the affected side of the face or mouth
- Painful muscle spasm in the area of the temporomandibular joint
- Neck, back, and/or shoulder pain
- Range of motion of the jaw tests
- Listening for sounds of popping or clicking in the temporomandibular joints
- Visual inspection of your teeth, temporomandibular joints, and muscles of your face and head
- Palpation of the joints and the muscles of the face and head
- Rest the jaw with a soft diet
- Restrict movement with smaller bites
- Apply warm packs for pain relief
- Cognitive behavior therapy may help some learn to avoid clenching and grinding their teeth
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Muscle relaxants
- Low-dose antidepressants
- Pain relieving medicine (such as cortisone or lidocaine)
- Botulinum toxin (Botox)—may offer temporary relief if pain or clicking are major symptoms
- Gentle massage or stretching exercises
- Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
- Ask your dentist if you need a night guard for grinding and clenching of the teeth.
- Try to limit jaw movements. Learn to relax your jaw. Block a yawn by putting your fist under your chin.
- Avoid extensive movements of the jaw.
- Don't chew gum.
- Learn relaxation techniques. Develop effective ways to cope with stress.
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery http://www.entcanada.org
Borodic GE, Acquadro MA. The use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of chronic facial pain. J Pain. 2002;3(1):21-27.
DynaMed Editorial Team. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction . EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated March 8, 2011. Accessed March 10, 2011
Haley DP, Schiffman EL, Lindgren BR, Anderson Q, Andreasen K. The relationship between clinical and MRI findings in patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint pain. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132(4):476-481.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov. Accessed July 7, 2009.
DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Turner JA, Mancl L, Aaron LA. Short- and long-term efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain: a randomized, controlled trial Pain. 2006;121(3):171-172.
- Reviewer: Peter Lucas, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/93/2012 -